Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great was born in 356 BCE, the son of the Macedonian KIng Philip II. Macedon was a kingdom just to the north of the Greek city states. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until age 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BCE, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army.

Alexander spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through western Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of 30, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.

In Egypt, Alexander the Great conquered Gaza. From there, he led his military, towards the eastern gateway to Egypt at Pelusium. He did this because he wanted to expel the Persians from Egypt. Surprisingly, he did not face any resistance from the Egyptians not from the Persian forces at Egypt's eastern frontier. Getting through to Egypt with considerable ease, Alexander the Great went on with his forces across the Nile River and arrived at the capital, Memphis. Here, he was welcomed by the Egyptians.

Moving on to Persia, Alexander the Great showed how powerful he and his forces were as he crushed a revolt in Thebes. He was able to use military strength along with political savvy to overthrow Persian leadership. Then, he went eastward where he defeated the Persians.

After he conquered the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, Alexander the Great began another campaign in India. Alexander endeavoured to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India in 326 BCE, winning an important victory over the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes. He eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops, dying in Babylon in 323 BCE, the city that he planned to establish as his capital.

Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion of the vast territory he conquered. The next age in Greek history was known as the Hellenistic World, when Persian and Indian influences merged with Greek. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mould of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He was undefeated in battle and became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves. Military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics.] He is often ranked among the most influential people in history.

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