Dividing the Roman Empire

Becoming one of the largest empires in history is an incredible achievement. The Roman Empire gained this status through continued expansion, conquest, trade, and development. However, Rome became so large that the government had difficulty ruling and protecting it. Many tribes were moving into Roman territory and could not be stopped due to the weakening of the Roman leadership and political instability.

In 286, the Emperor Diocletian decided to divide Rome into two sections to try and stabilize the empire. For 100 years Rome experienced more divisions and in 395 BC it finally became The Western Empire and The Eastern Empire.

The division changed Roman life and government forever. There were now two emperors in each half and they governed independently. The capital of the Western Empire was Rome and the capital of the Eastern Empire was Constantinople. After the division the Eastern Empire thrived. Constantinople was well-protected because it was on a peninsula that could be easily defended. It was also located on the frontiers of the empire allowing imperial armies to respond more easily to external attacks and threats.

The Eastern and Western Empires had similarities and differences. They both considered themselves Roman and celebrated the history of Rome. Although they governed separately, their form of government was similar and they enforced some of the same laws. However, they differed in religion, language, and culture. The Western Empire spoke Latin while the Eastern Empire spoke Greek. The Western Empire was Roman Catholic and practiced traditional Roman culture, and the Eastern Empire was Eastern Orthodox and had a more diverse culture influenced by different people. The Western Empire suffered from multiple invasions by barbarian tribes and was finally sacked in 476 CE. The Eastern Empire, also known as the Byzntine Empire survived for almost 1000 more years before being overtaken by the Otooman empire in 1453.